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SIOUX FALLS, S.D. (AP) — A report from an international human rights organization concludes many public schools are still hostile environments for LGBT students.

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The lengthy report from Human Rights Watch, released Wednesday in Sioux Falls, was based on interviews primarily with current and former high school students, parents, administrators and teachers in Texas, Alabama, Pennsylvania, South Dakota and Utah.

It documented several challenges lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender students face, including in-person and online bullying, limits on LGBT student groups, exclusion of some topics from curricula and discrimination by classmates and school personnel.

“In every state we visited, we heard stories of students who were insulted, cyber-bullied or attacked, and teachers who allowed discrimination and harassment because they see it as normal behavior,” said Ryan Thoreson, a fellow in the nonprofit’s LGBT Rights Program.

Thoreson said the five states provide a regionally representative and legally diverse sample. Thirty-one states, including the five in the report, have not enacted laws to specifically protect against bullying on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity, according to the report. While some districts and schools in Texas, Alabama, Pennsylvania and Utah have worked on comprehensive bullying policies, administrators in South Dakota cannot because of a state law that prohibits school districts from naming any protected classes of students in such policies.

“This makes it much more difficult for teachers to know how to intervene when they see that bullying happening, (and) for students to know that’s off-limits, that’s not OK,” Thoreson said. “Only South Dakota and Missouri have laws like that that prohibit school districts from putting their own protections.”

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The report includes recommendations for state legislatures, including the repeal of the South Dakota law. It also calls for measures to make schools more inclusive, including sexual education “that is medically and scientifically accurate, is inclusive of LGBT youth, and covers same-sex activity on equal footing with other sexual activity.” Recommendations to state and federal departments of education, school administrators and Congress are also included.

Human Rights Watch interviewed almost 360 current and former students from rural and urban districts, as well as more than 140 parents, teachers and administrators.

The students, whose names were changed for their protection, offered stories of physical violence, verbal harassment, cyberbullying and exclusion from events, classes and extracurricular activities. In many cases, they said, teachers did not intervene and sometimes participated in the harassment.

“My biology teacher my freshman year would bring in kids who were wearing short shorts or weird sweaters and say, ‘You’d better take that off, you’re going to look gay,'” a 16-year-old bisexual girl in Alabama said, according to the report. “But she’d say it in front of the whole class.”

The organization also found school policies and practices have made teachers fearful of negative consequences for identifying themselves as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender or for supporting LGBT students.

“One of the things that we really emphasis in the report is that keeping students safe shouldn’t be a partisan issue,” Thoreson said. “… There are certainly conservative leaders who have stood up for LGBT students, and our hope is that as we look at this from a purely pragmatic point of view, keeping LGBT kids safe, and keeping all students safe, shouldn’t be a partisan issue.”

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